For Oracle 9i onwards you have to use Oracle.jdbc. JDBC is a set of classes and interfaces written in java that allows java programs to send SQL statements to a database like Oracle. Oracle provides three categories of JDBC drivers. They are JDBC Thin Driver, JDBC OCI for writing standalone java applications and JDBC KPRB driver for java stored procedures and database JSPs. All the three drivers support the same syntax and APIs. Oracle needs these three drivers to support different deployment options. Oracle’s Thin driver uses Java sockets to connect directly to Oracle. Oracle’s JDBC OCI driver uses Oracle OCI to interact with an Oracle database. You have to use an appropriate JDBC OCI driver in Oracle client installation. KPRB driver is mainly used for writing java stored procedures, triggers and database JSPs.

Oracle Thin driver requires no software other than the driver jar file. This driver connects to Oracle database through TCP/IP. But Oracle Call Interface driver requires Oracle client software to be installed. Otherwise it will not be connected to the database. Oracle JDBC driver jar file can be freely downloaded from the Oracle’s website through free registration. Before downloading and installing the JDBC OCI driver, you must also set the environment for the smooth working. In order to download free software from the oracle website, you must require an Oracle Technology Network (OTN) account. After taking an account, accept the OTN license agreement to continue the downloading process. There are many versions of Oracle JDBC driver; you can choose any one of them, by checking its minimum requirements. For Oracle 8i, you can use the driver files under Oracle installation directory $ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib. For Oracle9i, you can download the driver files from the oracle website at To download 10g’s driver files, go to oracle website at But for Oracle 11g, you can download the driver files from oracle website at

Before start developing with JDBC, you must set up your JDNC environment. In windows platform, install J2SE Development kit 5.0 (JDK 5.0) from java official site. The environment variable should point to the directory where you installed the JDK. Make sure that the environment variable should have appropriate paths set. And also the environment variable should point to appropriate JRE bin. Most of the case these variables set already, you check this by yourself. First of all, got o the control panel and double click on the system. While in the case of windows XP, you must have to open performance and maintenance before you will see the system icon. Then got to the advanced tab and click on Environment Variables. Now check the above mentioned variables are set properly. Automatically you will get both JDBC packages java.sql and javax.sql while installing J2SE Development kit 5.0 (JDK 5.0). As a driver for accessing a database, there are a lot of JDBC drivers for different Oracle database versions. So be sure that you downloaded the correct JDBC driver for your database.